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AEROPHINEpromoters have found widest application in the selective beneficiation of the following ore types.

Ore TypeMineral ValuesMajor Minerals




Secondary copper sulfides

Free gold & electrum

Gold & Silver associated with sulfides


AEROPHINEpromoters, such as AEROPHINE3421 and AEROPHINE3422, can be used as the primary collector in flotation of porphyry copper ores that contain significant amounts of gold and silver. These promoters are highly effective in the recovery of coarse middlings and can therefore be used even at coarse grind. Additionally, AEROPHINE® flotation collectors can be highly beneficial in flash flotation where a targeted level of selectivity and enhanced recovery of the fast floating, liberated particles is needed.

Gold-Copper Ores

In ores where Au has greater value than Cu, AEROPHINEpromoters enable flotation at lower pH than xanthates, reducing lime usage and thus improving Au recovery. Having greater stability than xanthates allows them to be used under harsher low pH conditions where xanthates decompose to produce toxic H2S gas. In ores with auriferous pyrite, AEROPHINEpromoters can be used in the rougher stage for selective Cu recovery followed by a non-selective collector to recover pyrite. This pyrite can then be reground and additional AEROPHINEpromoter added to recover liberated Au and Cu values.

Ore TypeMineral ValuesMajor Minerals





Cu sulfides



Silver, Gold & electrum


Gold & Silver associated with sulfides

AEROPHINEpromoters are the flotation reagents of choice when treating Cu/Zn, Cu/Pb/Zn and especially Cu/Au/Ag/Pb/Zn ores. These ore types frequently have very high levels of pyrite and other iron sulphides. AEROPHINEpromoters are highly recommended over xanthates when selectivity against iron sulphides (pyrite, pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite) is required.

Lead-Zinc Ores

AEROPHINE3418A promoter is especially effective as the primary collector for galena, particularly where selectivity is desired against iron and zinc sulfides. It is an exceptional collector for silver minerals and argentiferous galena. AEROPHINEⓇ  blends are often used as primary and secondary collectors, such as AEROPHINE3407, AEROPHINE 3409 and AEROPHINE3410.

Copper-Zinc Ores

AEROPHINE3418A promoter is especially effective as the primary flotation collector for chalcopyrite, particularly where selectivity is desired against iron and zinc sulfides. It is an exceptional collector for silver minerals and gold electrum. AEROPHINEⓇ  blends are commonly used collectors, such as AEROPHINE3406, AEROPHINE 3409 and AEROPHINE3410

Copper-Lead-Zinc Ores

AEROPHINEpromoters are critical in providing optimum separation efficiency to generate high value concentrates in these complex circuits. Using a selective promoter in the early stages of sequential flotation helps to maintain selectivity through subsequent stages. Requiring low dosages, they provide excellent selectivity and enhanced flotation rates of base metals of choice and precious metals to make economical concentrates possible. AEROPHINE 3418A and AEROPHINEblends are commonly used collectors in these applications.


Ore TypeMineral ValuesMajor Minerals
Precious MetalsAu/Cu and Auriferous PyriteCu sulfides, electrum, pyrite, arsenopyrite refractory gold

AEROPHINEpromoters can provide significant improvements in flotation performance for mines that produce a high grade Ag, Au or Ag-Au concentrate. Increased flotation rates and selectivity for precious metals make them ideal primary and secondary collectors for precious metal flotation. Commonly used products include AEROPHINEⓇ  3416 and AEROPHINE 3418A.

Ore TypeMineral ValuesMajor Minerals


Ni / Cu




AEROPHINE3418A promoter has been historically known to provide good selectivity on various Cu-Ni ore bodies against pyrrhotite and MgO. Its use can reduce the quantity of xanthate required, while increasing Cu flotation kinetics and providing improved metallurgy. Additionally, it does not produce CS2 or COS, which is a significant advantage in terms of health and safety when compared to xanthates. 

Sequential Copper-Nickel Flotation

In sequential flotation, pH is raised to pH 11 with lime and a starvation dosage (6 g/t – 15 g/t) of AEROPHINE3418A promoter is used. This allows selective flotation of a high grade copper concentrate with minimal nickel content. Slurry pH is then reduced to about pH 9 and a nickel concentrate is produced. 

Bulk Copper-Nickel Flotation

In bulk Copper-Nickel flotation AEROPHINE3418A promoter can reduce the quantity of xanthate required, while increasing Cu and Ni flotation kinetics to provide improved metallurgy for both chalcopyrite and pentlandite, and enhanced selectivity against pyrrhotite and MgO.