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Membranes & Filtration Applications

Fluoropolymers

Fluoropolymers for Membranes and Filtration

Syensqo’s fluoropolymers are used to make microfiltration and ultrafiltration flat sheet and hollow fiber membranes for a wide range of bioprocessing and medical filtration applications. Molecular weights with controlled viscosities along with very high purity levels make these materials an excellent choice for membranes covering a broad range of porosity and shapes.

 PelletPowderMembraneDispersion
Solef® PVDF60106010, 1015, 6020  
Halar® ECTFE901   
Aquivion® PFSA   D83

Solef® PVDF and Halar® ECTFE

Solef® PVDF homopolymers are used to make durable, long-lasting membranes. Their toughness, chemical resistance and oxidative stability allow membranes to tolerate a wide variety of feed streams and cleaning methods. These materials are soluble in conventional processing solvents to make hollow fiber and flat sheet membranes by DIPS and TIPS processes.

Solef® PVDF homopolymers are made using a suspension-type polymerization process which provides a linear, gel-free product. They are available in powders and pellets that cover a wide range of molecular weights. High molecular weight grades improve fiber strength and minimize fiber breakage.

Typical Applications

  • Low pressure water filtration
  • Wastewater treatment
  • RO/NF pre-treatment

Key Features

  • High purity
  • Broad chemical resistance
  • Excellent mechanical properties
  • Continuous use up to 150°C
  • Excellent resistance to aging
  • Easy processing by solution
  • Broad molecular weight and high branching
  • Physiologically harmless and approved for contact with food products
SOLEF® PVDF GRADES FOR MEMBRANES  
PelletPowderTypical Mol Wt, Mw (g/mol)*
Solef® 6010Solef® 6010300-320
 Solef® 1015570-600
 Solef® 6020670-700

*Data from GPC in DMAc with calibration in polystyrene 
**10% solids solution in NMP, 25°C

Solvents for Solef® PVDF   
Good SolventsGood Swelling AgentPoor Swelling AgentsNon-Solvents
DMF 
DMAc 
NMP 
TEP 
DMSO
Acetone 
Cyclohexanone 
g-Butyrolactone
Tetrahydrofuran 
Methyl-Ethyl Ketone
Water 
Methanol 
Ethanol 
Toluene 
n-Hexane

Abbreviations 
DMAc: N,N-Dimethylacetamide 
DMF: N,N-Dimethyl Formamide 
DMSO: Dimethyl Sulfoxide 
NMP: N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone 
TEP: Triethyl Phosphate

Halar® ECTFE is based on ethylene and chlorotrifluoroethylene. It offers outstanding chemical resistance over a broad temperature range and is stable at pH levels from 1 to 14.

Because of its exceptional chemical resistance, the material cannot be processed using solution phase inversion. Instead, it must be processed at temperatures close to its melting point (200 –240°C) using a TIPS process for hollow fibers. Two grades having different molecular weights and melt temperatures are available.

Key Features

  • Outstanding resistance to ozone and chlorine
  • Stable at pH levels from 1 to 14
  • Limited solubility in organic solvents
  • Very good tensile properties
  • Processable by TIPS technology
  • FDA compliance for selected grades
Halar® ECTFE Grades for Membranes 
PelletMelt Flow Index, g/10 min 
ASTM D 1238, 275°C
Halar® 9011.0 (tested at 2.16 kg)

 

Physical Properties      
PropertyTest MethodUnitsSolef® 
6010
Solef® 
1015
Solef® 
6020
Halar® 
901
Form  pellet, 
powder
powderpowderpellets
DensityASTM D 792g/cm31.781.781.781.68
Molecular Weight, MwGPC vs PS 
standards
g/mol 
x 103
320570700 
Polydispersity  2.12.42.2 
Solution ViscosityBrookfieldcp330(1)1,400(1)1,700(1) 
Melt Flow IndexASTM Dg/10 min6.0(2)0.2(2)1.3(3)1.0(4)
Water Absorption 
24 hours, 23°C
ASTM D 570%< 0.04< 0.04< 0.04< 0.1

(1)10% NMP, 23°C, 50 rpm 
(2)Melt flow condition 230°C, 5.0 kg (ASTM D 638) 
(3)Melt flow condition 230°C, 2.16 kg (ASTM D 638) 
(4)Melt flow condition 275°C, 2.16 kg 

Mechanical Properties      
PropertyTest Method
Units
Solef®   
6010
Solef® 
1015
Solef® 
6020
Halar® 
901
Tensile Strength 
at Yield
ASTM D 638 
23°C, 50 
mm/min
psi 
MPa
7,685-8,265 
53-57
7,685-8,265 
53-57
7,685-8,265 
53-57
4,300 
30
Tensile Strength 
at Break
ASTM D 638 
23°C, 50 
mm/min
psi 
MPa
5,075-7,250 
35-50
5,075-7,250 
35-50
7,685-8,265 
25-50
7,800 
54
Tensile 
Elongation 
at Yield
ASTM D 638 
23°C, 50 
mm/min
%5-105-105-105
Tensile 
Elongation 
at Break
ASTM D 638 
23°C, 50 
mm/min
%20-5020-50
15-50
250
Tensile 
Modulus
ASTM D 638 
23°C, 1 
mm/min
kpsi 
MPa
348 
2,400
319 
2,200
239 
1,650
240(1) 
1,655(1)
Flexion 
Maximum 
Load
ASTM D 790 
23°C, 2 
mm/min
psi 
MPa
11,165 
77
10,150 
70
9,570 
66
 
Flexural StrengthASTM D 638 
23°C, 2.5 
mm/min
psi 
MPa
   
6,800 
47
Flexural 
Modulus
ASTM D 790 
23°C, 2 
mm/min
kpsi 
MPa
304 
2,100
290 
2,000
261 
1,800
245 
1,690

(1)Measured at 50 mm/min 

Thermal Properties      
PropertyTest MethodUnitsSolef® 
6010
Solef® 
1015
Solef® 
6020
Halar® 
901
Melting PointASTM D 3418°C173173171242
Heat of Fusion 
80°C to end of melt
ASTM D 3418J/g61606042
Glass Transition 
Temperature
DMTA°C-32-30-3485
Thermal StabilityTGA 
1% weight loss, N2
°C375-400375-400375-400405

 

Chemical Resistance & Solution Properties   
PropertySolef® 
1015
Solef® 
6010
Solef® 
6020
Hydrolytic Stability+++
Inorganic Acids+++
Organic Acids000
Alkali---
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons+++
Aromatic Hydrocarbons+++
Aliphatic Alcohols000
Chlorinated Solvents+++
Dipolar Aprotic Solvents000
Chlorine(1)+++
Ozone+++
Sterilization by Gamma Ra(2)+++
Sterilization by Steam+++

(1)In absence of UV light 
(2)Maximum 40 MRad

KEY

"+": Polymer is resistant. Any increase in weight is less than 2% and any decrease in weight is less than 0.3%. The tensile yield strength is at least 85% of the initial value. 
"0": Use of polymer is limited. Response does not meet above criteria. For example, weight increase may be more than 2%. However, the polymer can be used if stress is low. 
"–": Polymer is not resistant. There is considerable alteration of the polymer, such as dissolution or chemical or physical degradation.

COMMENTS

1. In general Solef is very resistant to inorganic acids. In carboxylic acids, the acidity does not affect polymer performance, although swelling may occur. 
2. Dipolar aprotic solvents is a huge class of chemicals: some are solvents for PVDF (e.g. NMP) while some can be recommended for use in contact with PVDF at low temperatures (e.g. butyl acetate). 
3. Chlorine and ozone are able to generate free radicals that can attack PVDF. In conditions promoting the formation of radicals (e.g. UV light), care must be taken for the use of the polymer as chemical attack was observed. 
4. Gamma radiation could damage PVDF depending on the radiation dose. Good resistance was observed up to 20-40 MRad, but chemical attack may occur at higher doses.

Agency Approvals  
 Solef® PVDFSolef® PVDF
Bioprocessing  
USP Class VI1008/0001901 
902
Water Contact  
NSF 611008/0001 
1010/0001 
1010/0901 
6008/0001 
6010/0001 
6010/0000
901 
902
Food Contact  
FDA1000 and 6000 series comply with 21 CFR 177.2510 
EC Directive1000 and 6000 series comply with 2002/72/EC as subsequently amended 
NSF 511008/0001 
1010/0001 
1015/1001 
6008/0001 
6010/1001 
6020/1001
 

For further specifications and details regarding these agency approvals, please contact your local sales representative.

Algoflon® PTFE and Aquivion® PFSA

Algoflon® PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) is an inert, non-toxic polymer with unique performance and processing attributes. It is available in fine coagulated white powders produced by dispersion polymerization, then processed by paste extrusion into a fibrous matrix with structural integrity.

Algoflon® DF powders are easily expanded after extrusion of the polymeric matrix without the use of soluble fillers, foaming agents or chemical additives. This process generates the physical creation of a huge number of small pores in the structure of an object made of PTFE, providing an exciting new level of performance properties.

Key Features

  • Outstanding chemical inertness
  • Exceptional heat resistance
  • Stable at pH levels from 1 to 14
  • Optimum dielectric and insulating properties
  • Extremely low coefficient of friction
  • Self-lubricating
  • Self-extinguishing
  • Outstanding anti-stick and release properties
  • Excellent weathering and aging characteristics

 

Typical Applications

  • Food and beverage processing
  • Gas and liquid microfiltration
  • Water treatment
  • Industrial filtration (e.g., filter bags, dust collectors)
  • Chemically inert fuel-cell membranes and separators
  • Garments made from lightweight, waterproof, breathable fabrics

 

Key Benefits

  • Suitable for high-temperature applications
  • Highly durable for long service life
  • Reduced fouling and clogging of equipment
  • Optimum resistance to aggressive cleaning programs
Typical Properties of Algoflon® DF Powders  
PropertyTest MethodUnits
Service Temperature -260 to 260°C
Heat Resistance Stable up to 260°C 
0.001% weight loss per hour at 350°C
Chemical ResistanceASTM D 543High inertness
Solvent ResistanceASTM D 543Insoluble up to 300°C
Water AbsorptionASTM D 5700.0%
Friction CoefficientASTM D 1894Static = 0.08 Dynamic = 0.06
Thermal ConductivityASTM C 1770.24 W/m°C
FlammabilityUL 94V-0
Limiting Oxygen IndexASTM D 2683>95%
Aging and Weatherability Stable over 20 years of exposure

Aquivion ® ionomer is a functionalized perfluoro-ionomer. The polymer’s short, low molecular weight side chains make it unique among ionically conductive perfluoropolymers and impart unique performance advantages.

Typical Membrane Applications

  • Proton Exchange Membranes Fuel cells (PEMFC)

  • PEM Electrolyzers

  • Redox Flow Batteries (RFB)

  • Gas humidification and pervaporation systems
  • Metal-ion recovery cells (Donnan dialysis)

 

Typical Dispersion Applications

  • Surface modifier for membrane filtration devices
  • Super acid catalyst systems
  • Electrochemical sensors
  • Cationic exchange resins
  • Electro-active polymers
  • Drug release devices

 

Key Features

  • Higher crystallinity for improved mechanical properties
  • Enhanced proton (and also Li+, Na+, K+) conductivity
  • Best-in-class ion conductivity, especially at high temperatures and low humidity
  • Very high functionality combined with excellent thermo-chemical resistance
  • Lower equivalent weight than competitive polymers
  • Shorter side chains than other ionically conductive perfluoropolymers
  • Unique combination of powerful functionality and excellent thermo-chemical resistance

 

 Equivalent 
Weight, 
g/mol SO3H
Typical 
Thickness, 
microns
Typical 
Concentration, 
% ionomer
Typical Solvents
Membrane    
Aquivion® E7979025-200  
Aquivion® E8787025-200  
Dispersion    
Aquivion® D72-25BS720 25%Water
Aquivion® D79-25BS790 25%Water
Aquivion® D87-28BS870 28%Water
Aquivion® D98-25BS980 25%Water